緬甸國旗

緬甸

Last Updated: July 18, 2021

緬甸概略

緬甸位於中南半島西部,東北與中國大陸雲南接壤,西北毗鄰孟加拉及印度,東南接寮國與泰國,西南面濱印度洋,國土面積約67.7萬平方公里,為世界第40大國、東南亞第2大國。人口約5,500萬(2021),共有135個民族,以緬族為主約佔65%,全國85%以上人口虔信佛教。首都為內比都,正式國名為緬甸聯邦共和國。

緬甸位居中印兩大文明之間,歷史長遠,在19世紀英國入侵前,緬族建立的貢榜王朝曾盛極一時。惟英國經1824至1885年3次英緬戰爭入侵,緬甸於1886年淪為英國殖民地。日本於第二次世界大戰時曾佔領緬甸,1948年緬甸正式脫離英國獨立為緬甸聯邦,並延襲英國議會制度,1962年,奈溫將軍政變,成立以軍政府,實行緬甸式社會主義,經過人民多次激烈反抗,軍政府被迫於2008年舉辦公民投票通過新憲法,並在2010年舉行民主選舉,2011年首任民選總統登盛上任,宣布對外開放,正式開展緬甸政治與經濟自由新篇章,緬甸鎖國近半世紀,優越的地理位置及豐富天然資源,被視為亞洲最後一塊機會之地。隨翁山蘇姬導下的全國民主聯盟於2015年大選大勝,順利於2016年執政,美國亦解除經濟制裁,外資不斷擁入,緬甸因地緣政治重要性,獲得世界大國如中印日美等國青睞,是中南半島上縱横四方之經濟走廊無法或缺的一環,目前雖因若開邦人道危機蒙塵,惟其重要性及潛力仍無可取代或被忽視。

緬甸於2020年11月舉行全國大選,原執政黨全國民主聯盟(National League for Democracy, NLD)席次過半,再次勝選,NLD佔國會多數,原訂於2021年3月底前將決定聯邦、地方首長以及展開組成新政府,惟緬甸2021年2月1日發生軍事政變後,總統溫敏及NLD領導翁山蘇姬等政要被拘禁,軍方掌控政權,宣布國家進入緊急狀態1年,目前情勢未明。Source

總人口

54,409,794 人

GDP

76,185,586,097 美金

GDP成長率

-9.992%

人均GDP

1400 美金

國土面積

652790 平方公里

城市化程度

31.1%(16,943,754)

失業率

1.79%

商業容易度

46.8 分

緬甸 人口概略與統計

Burma’s 2014 national census – the first in more than 30 years – revealed that the country’s total population is approximately 51.5 million, significantly lower than the Burmese Government’s prior estimate of 61 million. The Burmese Government assumed that the 2% population growth rate between 1973 and 1983 remained constant and that emigration was zero, ignoring later sample surveys showing declining fertility rates and substantial labor migration abroad in recent decades. These factors reduced the estimated average annual growth rate between 2003 and 2014 to about .9%. Among Southeast Asian countries, Burma’s life expectancy is among the lowest and its infant and maternal mortality rates are among the highest. The large difference in life expectancy between women and men has resulted in older age cohorts consisting of far more women than men.

Burma’s demographic transition began in the 1950s, when mortality rates began to drop. Fertility did not start to decrease until the 1960s, sustaining high population growth until the decline accelerated in the 1980s. The birth rate has held fairly steady from 2000 until today. Since the 1970s, the total fertility rate (TFR) has fallen more than 60%, from almost 6 children per woman to 2.2 in 2016. The reduced TFR is largely a result of women marrying later and more women never marrying, both being associated with greater educational attainment and labor force participation among women. TFR, however, varies regionally, between urban and rural areas, by educational attainment, and among ethnic groups, with fertility lowest in urban areas (where it is below replacement level).

The shift in Burma’s age structure has been slow (45% of the population is still under 25 years of age) and uneven among its socioeconomic groups. Any economic boost from the growth of the working-age population is likely to take longer to develop, to have a smaller impact, and to be distributed unequally. Rural poverty and unemployment continue to drive high levels of internal and international migration. The majority of labor migration is internal, mainly from rural to urban areas. The new government’s growing regional integration, reforms, and improved diplomatic relations are increasing the pace of international migration and destination choices. As many as 4-5 million Burmese, mostly from rural areas and several ethnic groups, have taken up unskilled jobs abroad in agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, and domestic service. Thailand is the most common destination, hosting about 70% of Burma’s international migrants, followed by Malaysia, China, and Singapore.

Burma is a patchwork of more than 130 religious and ethnic groups, distinguishing it as one of the most diverse countries in the region. Ethnic minorities face substantial discrimination, and the Rohingya, the largest Muslim group, are arguably the most persecuted population in the country. The Burmese Government and the Buddhist majority see the Rohingya as a threat to identity, competitors for jobs and resources, terrorists, and some still resent them for their alliance with Burma’s British colonizers during its 19th century. Since at least the 1960s, they have been subjected to systematic human rights abuses, violence, marginalization, and disenfranchisement, which authorities continue to deny. Despite living in Burma for centuries, many Burmese see the Rohingya as illegal Bengali immigrants and refer to them Bengalis. As a result, the Rohingya have been classified as foreign residents and stripped of their citizenship, rendering them one of the largest stateless populations in the world.

Hundreds of thousands of Burmese from various ethnic groups have been internally displaced (an estimated 644,000 as of year-end 2016) or have fled to neighboring countries over the decades because of persecution, armed conflict, rural development projects, drought, and natural disasters. Bangladesh has absorbed the most refugees from Burma, with an estimated 33,000 officially recognized and 200,000 to 500,000 unrecognized Rohingya refugees, as of 2016. An escalation in violation has caused a surge in the inflow of Rohingya refugees since late August 2017, raising the number to an estimated 870,000. As of June 2017, another approximately 132,500 refugees, largely Rohingya and Chin, were living in Malaysia, and more than 100,000, mostly Karen, were housed in camps along the Burma-Thailand border.

地理位置

Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

種族分布

Burman (Bamar) 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%

主要語言

Burmese (official)

主要宗教

Buddhist 87.9%, Christian 6.2%, Muslim 4.3%, Animist 0.8%, Hindu 0.5%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2014 est.)

緬甸人口壽命與依賴性

該國人口數據最新更新時間為2020年。

壽命與出生率

緬甸於2020年時,預期壽命為67.1歲,而嬰兒死亡率則為35.8‰

依賴性

緬甸於2020年時,國民生活依賴率為46.45937889,其中老年人之比率為9.133336736,年輕人比率為37.32604215

緬甸政策現況

一、「 2011-2031 年 國 家 全 面 發 展 計 畫 (National.Comprehensive Development Plan) 」:現階段之五年(2016-2020)計畫目標為:1.完成所有部會及部門計畫方案;2.啟動國際樞紐(經濟特區及邊境通道);3.發展人力資源以因應新經濟活動 4.推動農業現代化及多樣化;5.強化行政效能;6.提高電力供應。
二、「經濟 12 點政策(12-point economic policy) 」:經濟 12 點政策為 NLD 政府執政後頒布首項經濟政策,也是目前最全面的經建藍圖,12 點政策強調在緬甸發展市場主導經濟體系的重要性,將農業、工業及基礎建設等列為重點發展領域,並要促進外商投資及改善國內經商環境。

三、「2016/17-2035/36 緬甸投資推廣計畫( MyanmarInvestment Promotion Plan;MIPP)」: 107 年 10 月頒佈,擘劃未來 20 年招商引資之政策,以期吸引逾2,000 億美元之投資總額,世界銀行經商環境排名2020 年達百名內,2035 年達 40 名內。緬甸投資委員會與日本國際協力機構 (JICA) 將共同複審受新 冠肺炎疫情影響之《緬甸投資推廣計劃 MIPP》,以 推動疫後的農業、衛生、工業與數字化領域的發展。

四、「 緬 甸 永 續 發 展 計 畫 (Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan;MSDP) 」: 107 年 8 月定案,為緬甸 2018-2030 年推動國家永續 發展施政藍圖。,包含 3 項支柱、5 項目標、28 項策 略及 251 項行動計畫。Source

主要政策

  1. 1997 年成為東南亞國協(ASEAN)會員(東協自由貿易區ASEAN Free Area , AFTA)
  2. 孟印緬斯泰經濟合作組織(BIMESTEC)(2004 年簽署)
  3. 東協與澳紐 FTA(2009.2 簽署,2010.1 生效)、東協與印度 FTA(2009.8 簽署,2010.1 生效)
  4. 東協與日本 FTA(2008.4 簽署,2008.12 生效)、東協與韓國FTA(2009 生效)
  5. 東協與中國 FTA(2010 生效)、東協與香港 FTA(2017.11 簽署,2019.6 生效)
  6. 區域全面經濟夥伴協定 RCEP(2020.11.15 簽署)

參與國際團體

ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

緬甸的經貿概略

2020 年新冠肺炎(COVID-19)大爆發重挫了緬甸的經濟及公共衛生,疫病大流行與相關的檢疫隔離措施,致使消費及投資萎縮,企業營運也因勞工及部份生產要素的供給短缺而中斷,據世界銀行 2020 年 12 月的研究報告,緬甸 2020 年財政年度(2019 年 10 月 1 日至 2020 年 9月 30 日)經濟成長率預估為 1.5%,較上財年的 6.8%大幅下挫。

國際貨幣基金(IMF)統計顯示,緬甸 2020 期間值得注意的幾項經濟訊號,包括新冠肺炎疫情雖相對其他亞洲國家和緩,但已嚴重衝擊緬甸主要經濟動能部門,包括出口、匯兌及觀光等,加上國內經濟活動受限,企業與一般家庭都受重大影響。此外,國際油價下跌連動緬甸天然氣出口收入減少,緬幣對美金升幅高於域內亞幣、社福支出增加、政府財政赤字急驟惡化等,也是經濟觀重點。

世銀在 2020 年 12 月的報告指出,2019/2020 財年COVID-19 的疫情打擊下, 緬甸經濟僅成長近 1.5%,隨各項限制與隔離措施逐步放寬,下半年的經濟已現曙光,包括各新營造投資計畫的進行、交通基礎建設開發電力能源計畫、製造業活動恢復,以及數位科技的應等因素支持下,各部門的產出都漸次提升,雖仍無法排除全球及緬甸本地疫情再失控的風險,但中長期的經濟復甦走勢漸趨樂觀。然而,好景不常,緬甸軍方於 2021年 2 月 1 日發動政變,全國爆發抗議政變潮及公民抗活動(CDM),迄今軍政府與反對派勢力的暴力對峙仍不斷升溫,不但抗議政變人士傷亡人數陡增,原和平抗議的路線也轉變為對外國工廠的破壞與縱火。各界原先看好緬甸在 COVID-19 疫後,逐步趨穩的經濟前景已一去不返,目前緬甸政局走勢仍混沌不明,難以預測。Source

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緬甸的出口項目為何?

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緬甸從哪些國家進口貨品?

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在這一緬甸Briefing的資料最新更新時間為2021年,其整體所使用之數據為2020年,倘若使用參照資料非2020年,會另作標記。

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