Politics of Poland in 2023: Politics & Election Tracking

Last Updated: October 30, 2023

Political Summary

After World War II, Poland was under a Soviet-backed communist regime until the Solidarity trade-union movement emerged in 1980, leading to partly free elections in 1989 and the formation of the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe. Since then, governments composed of parties descended from the Solidarity movement have alternated in power with coalitions led by the former communists, renamed the Democratic Left Alliance. The conservative-nationalist Law and Justice party (PiS) or the liberal, center-right Civic Platform have won elections since 2005, with PiS winning the 2019 parliamentary election and the 2020 presidential election.

Poland is a parliamentary republic with a two-house parliament consisting of the Sejm (lower house) and Senate (upper house), and a directly elected president who can veto legislation. A three-fifths majority in the Sejm is needed to override a presidential veto.

The Law and Justice party (PiS) prioritizes social welfare, economic nationalism, and reducing inequality. Since taking office in 2015, PiS has focused on pro-natalist policies, increasing welfare and the minimum wage, and lowering the pension age. The government is pursuing a “repolonization” program to repatriate ownership of strategic or politically significant industries by fostering their acquisition through state-owned enterprises. The state maintains a significant presence in the economy, with approximately half of the 20 largest companies by market capitalization being state-controlled.

The government’s top priority going into 2023 is to manage the cost-of-living crisis, with a series of support packages aimed at reducing the impact of high energy prices on households and businesses. The most recent measures include one-time payments for heating, price caps for gas, central heating, hot water, and electricity, as well as subsidies to enterprises. The government expects energy companies to have minimal profits in 2023, with taxpayers sharing the fiscal burden. Poland has invested in new LNG facilities and accelerated gas provision from Norway to reduce energy dependence on Russia. However, the country is expected to increase coal production to reduce reliance on Russian gas, despite the government’s climate pledges.

Poland is also shouldering the burden of a refugee crisis, with an estimated 1.5 million Ukrainian refugees having settled in the country. A new law allows refugees to stay for up to three years with access to healthcare, education, and social services. The government and local authorities spent zł 15.9bn in 2022 alone to support Ukrainian refugees, according to the Polish Economic Institute.

Poland - Government Spending (% of GDP)
Note: (%)|2023後為預測(IMF)

Current Account Balance

-20.77 Billion

Current Account Balance (% of GDP)

- %

Gov Net Landing/Borrowing(% of GDP)

-3.7 %

Gov Gross Debt(% of GDP)

49.1 %

Poland - Current Account Balance
note: (% of GDP) | Forecast After 2023
Poland - Gross Debt
note: (% of GDP) | Forecast After 2023

Election Tracking

The ruling coalition United Right, led by the Law and Justice party (PiS), won the election, securing a majority of seats in the lower house of parliament. However, opposition parties and independent candidates won a majority of seats in the upper house. Despite this, the ruling coalition’s majority in the lower house gives them the power to enact legislation and form the government.

Foreign Policy

FDI Rank(Inflow)


Export Rank


FDI Volume
Unit: Million USD
FDI % of World
Unit: 1/10000
Export Volume
Unit: Million USD
Export as % of The World
Unit: 1/10000

Business Environment

Ranking (Regional)


Ranking (Global)


Doing Business Index (World Bank)
Unit: Score
Business Environment Index (EIU)
Unit: Score

Labor Market

Minimum Hourly Rate

4.5 $

Manufacturing Rate AVG

12.02 $

Average Salary

1390 $

10 Year Growth

3.0927 %

Poland - Unemployment Rate
Note: % | Forecast After 2023 (IMF)
  • Economic Data: OECD, World Bank, IMF、Government Statistics Bureau
  • Currency Exchange: Based on IMF data in 2023/1
  • GDP Growth Projection: OECD、IMF, OECD, EIU、Government Bureau
  • Unemployment Rate Projection: ILO, UNECE
  • Doing Business Report: World Bank 2020 (It was discontinued in 2021)
  • Trade: UN Comtrade, UNCTD
  • ICT Infrastructure: ITU
  • Taxation: World Bank, Statistics Bureau
  • Minimum Wage: Statistics Bureau
  • Analysis: OOSGA Analytics
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